• 2019-10
  • 2019-11
  • 2020-03
  • 2020-07
  • 2020-08
  • JNJ-42153605 br min at room temperature With the help


    15 min at room temperature. With the help of micro plate reader absorbance of the dye determined. Independent experiments were repeated at least three times to confirm the data. Quantification of the extracted dye was correlated with the live cell number. The percentage of viable cells in the cell population at each concen-tration was calculated by using the following formula:
    percent cell viability Ptreated Pempty
    ¼ Pcontrol Pempty
    where Ptreated is the mean absorbance of silver oxide nanoparticles, Pempty is the mean absorbance of empty wells, and Pcontrol is the absorbance of control cells.
    3. Results and discussions
    The crystal structural properties of the synthesized silver oxide nanoparticles were characterized by X-Ray diffractometer (P'Analytical, XPERT-Pro system) operated at l ¼ 1.54 Å having voltage of 40 kV using CuKa as a radiation source. The topography of the prepared sample was studied by (Jeol JSM-840) scanning electron microscope (SEM) operated at voltage 25 kV. The Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) system attached to the SEM (Oxford ex-act Analytical Silicon Drift Detector) was used to study the composition of different elements present in the prepared sample. Lambda 35 spectrometer was used to study the optical JNJ-42153605 spectrum.
    3.1. Structural analysis
    Fig. 1 showed the crystal structure patterns of the silver oxide nanoparticles synthesized by aqueous (co precipitation) method at 800 C for 24 h. The silver oxide synthesized material showed the cubic crystal structure. It is very clearly seen that x-ray diffraction pattern have a single phase. All the peaks are indexed with com-puter software GSAS, the Miller indices of the highest intensity peaks labeled with plane [111] at the about diffraction angle 38.51 while the rest of plans revealed in this manner [200], [220], [311] and [222] respectively. It is observed that the highest intensity peaks have a broader width, which means that the formation of the material growth has completed and has a small crystallite size. Moreover, the structural parameters such as lattice constant (a), unit cell volume (Vcell), crystallite size (D) and X-ray density (dx-ray) were calculated from XRD data using the following formulae, respectively.
    bhkl cosqhkl
    where l is the wavelength of X-ray XRD (l ¼ 1.54 Å), q is the Bragg's diffraction angle, k is the shape factor. Z represents molecules per unit cell of the spinel structure, M is the molecular weight of the sample and NA is the Avogadro's number (6.02 1023 g/mol) Table 1. The structural Parameters, Miller indices, Diffraction angle, Inter plain distance, Lattice constant a (Ǻ), volume of the unit cell
    Silver oxide nanoparticles
    Angle2 (Degree)
    Fig. 1. XRD Analysis of silver oxide nanoparticles.
    The lattice parameter of the synthesized sample are calculated by Equation (2) and listed in the (Table 1) which are in excellent agreement with the earlier reported values for the similar struc-ture. It is observed that the lattice parameter have variation in each planes, overall average value of the samples is found to be 4.0632 Å. In addition, unit cell volume is also calculated using Equation (3) for all the peaks and the values are listed in Table 1. The crystallite size of all the x-ray diffraction peaks are calculated using Scherrer's formula and is found to be 64.3 nm as listed in Table 1. In the present study, the observed crystallite size lies in the desired nanometer scale so that the NPs are suitable for biomedical applications.
    Table 1
    The structural Parameters, Miller indices, Diffraction angle, Inter plain distance, Lattice constant a (Ǻ), volume of the unit cell (Ǻ3), crystallite size (nm), X-ray density, dx (g/cm3) of synthesized silver oxide nanoparticles at 800 C/24 h via wet chemical method.
    3.2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis
    Fig. 2 shows the scanning electron microscope which is used to examine the morphology and grain size of the investigated silver oxide powders. It is clear from the SEM micrograph that the ma-terial has fine grain uniformly distributed. The average grain size lies in the nanoscale range. It is also evident from the micrograph that silver oxide nanoparticles have almost spherical shapes of
    Fig. 2. Morphological analysis for silver oxide nanoparticles prepared at 800 OC/24 h.
    different sizes.
    3.3. Elemental analysis
    Fig. 3 showed the EDX (energy dispersive X-ray spectra) of the silver oxide of the prepared sample. The study of this spectrum shows that the formation of the required oxide material after mixed oxides have completed their chemical reaction successively. So, the analysis of obtained results have shown that our desired product is clean from extra bi products in the form of nitrates or other metal oxides, ions. The spectrum shows the obtained ratio of the silver oxide atoms is close to the reported data values [17]. Silver (Ag) is indicated in black color and O in red color with notation in yellow.